Sunday, 23 December 2012

Water quality at poultry farms

Keep Poultry farms healthy with clean chlorinated water

Water is utmost important for poultry farming; survival time of poultry is limited in its absence. Birds can survive for longer periods without any other nutrient than they can survive without water.

Birds generally drink approximately twice as much water as the amount of feed consumed on a weight basis.

Although the importance of providing a sufficient amount of water or adequate access to it is well accepted, the importance of water quality on performance is often overlooked. Water quality attributes can have a direct or indirect effect on performance. High levels of bacterial contaminants, minerals, or other pollutants in drinking water can have detrimental effects on normal physiological properties resulting in inferior performance.

Water quality can be evaluated by a number of criteria. It can be difficult, however, to describe good quality drinking water for poultry because many of the standards have been derived from recommendations for other species of animals or from human standards. Submitting a water sample annually for analysis should be an important part of good water management.

Drinking water should be clear, tasteless, odourless, and colourless. As a general observation, a reddish-brown colour may indicate the presence of iron, while a blue colour indicates the presence of copper. Hydrogen sulfide is indicated by a rotten egg odor. Hydrogen sulfide may also combine with iron to form black water (iron sulfide) that may also implicate the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Taste can be affected by the presence of salts, and a bitter taste is usually associated with the presence of ferrous and manganese sulfates.

The presence of microorganisms is typically a result of surface contamination by organic materials and can result in poor performance. The presence of coliform bacteria is generally related to fecal contamination of drinking water due to runoff to surface or ground waters. Chlorination or filtration of the water supply can eliminate bacterial contaminants.

The acidity or alkalinity of water is measured by pH. Low pH water can be unpalatable, corrosive to equipment, and may have a negative impact on performance. High pH water is also unacceptable since it reflects high levels of calcium and magnesium, which can clog watering systems. Poultry accepts water on the acid side better than it accepts water on the alkaline side.

Turbidity results from the suspension of materials such as silt, clay, algae or organic materials in water. Levels of turbidity above five ppm result in unpalatable water and indicate surface contamination.

Measurement of total dissolved solids (TDS), or salinity, indicates levels of inorganic ions dissolved in water. Calcium, magnesium, and sodium salts are the primary components that contribute to TDS. High levels of TDS are the most commonly found contaminants responsible for causing harmful effects in poultry production.

Various methods are available that can reduce or eliminate the impurities that adversely affect water quality. Chlorination is the most common method used to treat water for bacterial contamination and effectively eliminate bacteria from the water supply. Chlorine can be administered through an in-line proportioner. General recommendations are to have a level of two to three ppm at the drinker farthest from the proportioner. Chlorine levels can be easily monitored using a pool test kit. The following points should be kept in mind during chlorination method of water treatment.

Do not chlorinate market age birds under extreme heat stress. Measure residual chlorine at the waterer to maintain at least a 1.0 ppm level at the drinker mid-house.

Discontinue chlorination and administer powdered milk solution before vaccination to neutralise chlorine since chlorine kills vaccines. Use caution since chlorine solutions are acidic and often oxidize soft rubber.

By Dr Sayed Irfanullah

From the source -\06\29\story_29-6-2012_pg7_27

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Saturday, 24 November 2012

Contaminated River Water

Contaminated River Water Suspected in India's Hepatitis E Outbreak

Officials in the Indian state of Maharashtra suspect that contaminated water from the Panchganga river is responsible for a recent hepatitis E outbreak in Ichalkaranji. Eighteen people from Ichalkaranji and the city’s surrounding area have died from the infection over the past month, with another 4,000 remaining ill.

Ichalkaranji’s chief health official, Sunil Sangewar, noted that leaks from sewage pipes and industrial effluents have contaminated the Panchganga, and that authorities are addressing the issue. In an effort to curb the spread of the virus, schools and restaurants in Ichalkaranji have closed for eight days.

Hepatitis means that the liver is inflamed. Hepatitis E is one of a few different hepatitis viruses (others are hepatitis A, B, C, and D). Different hepatitis viruses cause different types of disease: some chronic, some acute. Hepatitis E is typically an acute viral infection, transmitted through the consumption of fecally-contaminated water or food. Poor sanitation and shedding of the virus in feces contribute to the infection’s spread. Symptoms of hepatitis E include fever, nausea, jaundice, dark urine and joint pain. Hepatitis E is rare in the United States, but epidemics have been reported in Central and Southeast Asia, North and West Africa and Mexico.

No vaccine is available for hepatitis E. Preventing infection is possible through good hygiene, high standards for public water supplies and good waste management practices. CDC recommends that travelers visiting areas where hepatitis E is endemic avoid drinking water that has not been boiled or chlorinated and drinks with ice. Additionally, travelers should eat only thoroughly-cooked food.

From the source:

Drinking water it plays the major role in our daily life, clean drinking water is most important to avoid any disease.

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Friday, 28 September 2012

Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus: a non-enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus. Every year there are 20 million hepatitis E infections, over three million acute cases of hepatitis E, and 70 000 hepatitis E-related deaths. Hepatitis E is usually self-limiting but may develop into fulminant hepatitis (acute liver failure).


Loss of appetite
An enlarged liver
Abdominal pain and tenderness
Fever and vomiting

There is no available treatment capable of altering the course of acute hepatitis. Prevention is the most effective approach against the disease.

18 killed in hepatitis E outbreak in Maharashtra

Eighteen people have been killed in Ichalkaranji city, 300 kms. South of Mumbai, because of outbreak of hepatitis E. The outbreak was caused by contaminated water from the city's Panchganga River. 

An outbreak of hepatitis E has struck the western Indian state of Maharashtra killing at least 18 people and leaving over 4,000 sick, officials said Wednesday.

City authorities suspect the outbreak in the Ichalkaranji city was caused by contaminated water from the city's main Panchganga river. The city has a population of 300,000 and is situated 300 kilometers south of Mumbai.

"Fifteen people were killed in Ichalkaranji while three more were killed in its surrounding areas in the outbreak over the past month," the city's chief health official Sunil Sangewar said. Most deaths occurred in the past fortnight.

"The main reason for the outbreak is leaks from sewage pipes and industrial effluents mixing with the Panchganga, making it highly polluted," he said, adding authorities had taken measures to stop the contamination.

While several hundred patients taken ill with hepatitis have been treated, around 300 patients were under medical care in the city, he said.

Schools, colleges and restaurants in the city have been shut down for eight days in an effort to control the spread of the disease.

Water purification is playing the vital role in human’s life. 

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Friday, 24 August 2012

Viral Infections

"Wash vegetables thoroughly before cooking. Mosquito nets and repellents should be used. Try to eat hot food during the season,"

After a long wait, the monsoon has set in for the year. Though the season makes one to search for hot munchies, the time has come to guard oneself from water borne diseases and other seasonal infections. These viruses could turn out to be fatal if left unattended. 

The season invites several viral infections like diarrhoea, typhoid, hepatitis A and B, malaria, fever, cold, cough, etc. The time is convenient for mosquito breeding as the rain water gets stagnated, filling the small pools and pits. One can be more prone to jaundice and diarrhoea during monsoon, said HoD of Medicine KGH M. Madhusudhana Babu. “Maintaining personal hygiene by washing hands frequently with soap has become mandatory,” he said.Chlorination of the water tanks should be done periodically, said physician K. Surya Rao. “Leaking taps where one gets municipal water supply pose a threat. As the dirty water gets stored in the seeping pipelines and when the pipe gets opened for regular supply, the contaminated water gets gushed along with the drinking water,” he explained. People who are already suffering from heart, kidney and brain infections are more prone to water borne viral fevers, said another physician V. Srinivas. “ Precautions should be taken to avoid mosquito breeding at home and surroundings. Keep the environment clean from old and unused tyres, coconut shells and other unwanted items where rain water gets stagnated. 

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